Capitalism is a socio-economic formation, the main characteristics of which are:
Industrial mode of production;
The alienation of the producing classes from the means of production;
Assignment of a disproportionately large share of public profit by classes that do not participate directly in its creation;
Capitalism as the dominant social order arose in the aftermath of a series of bourgeois revolutions in the 17th-19th centuries in Europe. However, the stage of the formation of capitalism within the framework of the domination of the previous feudal formation began in the 15th century. A major role in the formation of the capitalist social outlook was played by the religious reformation that began in the sixteenth century. It was with the change in social views on such postulates of Christianity as the attitude to material wealth and the interest of the courts that the period of active growth of individual bourgeois enterprises began, a bourgeois class appeared that was not yet dominant and was under pressure from the then dominant feudal class. The way out of this situation was the transfer of power from the feudal elements of government to the bourgeois. For this it was necessary to make bourgeois relations in society, in production dominant. Overwhelmingly superior in their economic potential is the feudal opposition to them. This was greatly assisted by the first industrial revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries, as a result of which material means began to accumulate in the hands of the bourgeois class, which enabled them to assert their rights not only in the economy but also in politics.
In XVI-XVII advanced at the time, the layers of society realized the need to support and promote a progressive for that historical period of social order. To achieve the goal, a way was chosen to involve as many people as possible in support of the new social order. To destroy the notion of the previous formation as acceptable and acceptable to society as a whole, a program of discrediting the feudal system, known to us as enlightenment, was launched. As a result, such additional features of capitalism appeared as:
– mass media;
Appealing to the opinion of the majority as to the source of power has given rise to such features of social organization that accompany capitalism as
And the need to protect their own market from the seizure of other ethnic groups by capital has led to the emergence of
– national states.
Which have become an open, public place of concentration of state power along with not advertised – a place of concentration of economic power – by capital. This, in part, was due to the fact that in the genesis of capitalism there was an appeal to the broad masses of the people, as a force capable of destroying the previous socio-economic formation-feudalism. The need to have an ally with forceful, non-economic methods of influencing competitors from other regions was consolidated by the union of state power and capital. The removal of a large part of the social product in favor of a small part of the population is washing away solvent public demand. The presence of the court interest strengthens this negative tendency by drawing a part of the social product to the layers of society, which have nothing to do with its production. What with each turn of capital strengthens disproportions in a society. The way out of this generic vice of capitalism was geographic expansion, the seizure of new territories, which became sources of raw materials, and later market outlets. Thus, the characteristics of capitalism were formed:
This forced some of the participants in the capitalist mode of production to strive for extraterritoriality. This, in turn, gave rise to the need to protect its capital in the territory of other capitalist and non-capitalist states. This was the reason for the appearance:
– extraterritorial structures of coordination and management;
The time of the heyday of capitalism was the twentieth century. It was then that almost all forms of this social formation were manifested and reached a possible maximum. In the course of bourgeois revolutions, the institution of state ownership of the means of production arose, appearing as an alternative to private ownership of the means of production.
The interaction of the two points of concentration of power – the state system and capital – enables the functioning of the four forms of capitalism. Three of which were completely decorated in the twentieth century. Depending on which form of concentration is dominant in this or that alliance of state power, state capital and private capital, there are:
– the state system is weaker, private capital is stronger – imperialism.
– the state system is stronger, private capital is weaker – fascism.
– the state system completely absorbed private capital, transferring the means of production to full state ownership – socialism.
The fourth kind of power-capitalistic duality
– the state system is weakened to destruction, seized by private capital, the national